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双相不锈钢与奥氏体以及铁素体不锈钢的比较

日期:2021-09-08 00:47
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摘要:<p align="left" style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">双相不锈钢与奥氏体以及铁素体不锈钢的比较</span></span> </p> <p align="left" style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">所谓双相不锈钢是在其固淬组织中铁素体相与奥氏体相各占一半,一般*少相的含量也许要达到</span>30%<span style="font-family:宋体;">。</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">&nbsp;</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><br /> </span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span style="font-family:宋体;">由于两相组织的特点,通过正确控制化学成分和热处理工艺,使</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">DSS</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">兼有铁素体不锈钢和奥氏体不锈钢的优点。</span></span> </p> <p align="left" style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<span style="font-family:宋体;">与奥氏体不锈钢相比,双相不锈钢的优势如下:</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><br /> </span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><br /> </span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">&nbsp; &nbsp; <span style="font-family:宋体;">(</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">1</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">)屈服强度比普通奥氏体不锈钢高一倍多,且具有成型需要的足够的塑韧性。采用双相不锈钢制造储罐或压力容器的壁厚要比常用的奥氏体减少</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">30-50%</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">,有利于降低成本。</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><br /> </span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">&nbsp; &nbsp; <span style="font-family:宋体;">(</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">2</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">)具有优异的耐应力腐蚀破裂的能力,即使是含合金量*低的双相不锈钢也有比奥氏体不锈钢更高的耐应力腐蚀破裂的能力,尤其在含氯离子的环境中。应力腐蚀是普通奥氏体不锈钢难以解决的突出问题。</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><br /> </span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<span style="font-family:宋体;">(</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">3</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">)在许多介质中应用*普遍的</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">2205</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">双相不锈钢的耐腐蚀性优于普通的</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">&nbsp;</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><br /> </span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 316L<span style="font-family:宋体;">奥氏体不锈钢,而超级双相不锈钢具有极高的耐腐蚀性,再一些介质中,如醋酸,甲酸等甚至可以取代高合金奥氏体不锈钢,乃至耐蚀合金。</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><br /> </span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<span style="font-family:宋体;">(</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">4</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">)具有良好的耐局部腐蚀性能,与合金含量相当的奥氏体不锈钢相比,它的耐磨损腐蚀和疲劳腐蚀性能都优于奥氏体不锈钢。</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><br /> </span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">&nbsp; &nbsp; <span style="font-family:宋体;">(</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">5</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">)比奥氏体不锈钢的线膨胀系数低,和碳钢接近,适合与碳钢连接,具有重要的工程意义,如生产复合板或衬里等。</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><br /> </span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<span style="font-family:宋体;">(</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">6</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">)不论在动载或静载条件下,比奥氏体不锈钢具有更高的能量吸取能力,这对结构件应付突发事故如冲撞,爆炸等,双相不锈钢优势明显,有实际应用价值。</span></span> </p> <p align="left" style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><br /> </span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<span style="font-family:宋体;">与奥氏体不锈钢相比,双相不锈钢的弱势如下:</span></span> </p> <p align="left" style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<span style="font-family:宋体;">(</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">1</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">)应用的普遍性与多面性不如奥氏体不锈钢,例如其使用温度必须控制在</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">250</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">摄氏度以下。</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><br /> </span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <span style="font-family:宋体;">(</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">2</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">)其塑韧性较奥氏体不锈钢低,冷,热加工工艺和成型性能不如奥氏体不锈钢。</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><br /> </span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <span style="font-family:宋体;">(</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">3</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">)存在中温脆性区,需要严格控制热处理和焊接的工艺制度,以避免有害相的出现,损害性能。</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><br /> </span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <span style="font-family:宋体;">与铁素体不锈钢相比,双相不锈钢的优势如下:</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><br /> </span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">(</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">1</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">)综合力学性能比铁素体不锈钢好,尤其是塑韧性,不象铁素体不锈钢那样对脆性敏感。</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><br /> </span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">(</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">2</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">)除耐应力腐蚀性能外,其他耐局部腐蚀性能都优于铁素体不锈钢。</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><br /> </span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">&nbsp;<span style="font-family:宋体;">(</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">3</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">)冷加工工艺性能和冷成型性能远优于铁素体不锈钢。</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><br /> </span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">&nbsp;<span style="font-family:宋体;">(</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">4</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">)焊接性能也远优于铁素体不锈钢,一般焊前不需预热,焊后不需热处理。</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><br /> </span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">(</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">5</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">)应用范围较铁素体不锈钢宽。</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><br /> </span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">与铁素体不锈钢相比,双相不锈钢的弱势如下:</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><br /> </span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">合金元素含量高,价格相对高,一般铁素体不含镍。</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><br /> </span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">综上所述,可以概括地看出</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">DSS</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">的使用性能和工艺性能的概貌,它以其优越的力学与耐腐蚀综合性能赢得了使用者的青睐,已成为既节省重量又节省投资的优良的耐蚀工程材料。</span></span> </p>

双相不锈钢与奥氏体以及铁素体不锈钢的比较

所谓双相不锈钢是在其固淬组织中铁素体相与奥氏体相各占一半,一般*少相的含量也许要达到30% 
        由于两相组织的特点,通过正确控制化学成分和热处理工艺,使DSS兼有铁素体不锈钢和奥氏体不锈钢的优点。

       与奥氏体不锈钢相比,双相不锈钢的优势如下:
                      
    1)屈服强度比普通奥氏体不锈钢高一倍多,且具有成型需要的足够的塑韧性。采用双相不锈钢制造储罐或压力容器的壁厚要比常用的奥氏体减少30-50%,有利于降低成本。                
    2)具有优异的耐应力腐蚀破裂的能力,即使是含合金量*低的双相不锈钢也有比奥氏体不锈钢更高的耐应力腐蚀破裂的能力,尤其在含氯离子的环境中。应力腐蚀是普通奥氏体不锈钢难以解决的突出问题。
     3)在许多介质中应用*普遍的2205双相不锈钢的耐腐蚀性优于普通的 
      316L奥氏体不锈钢,而超级双相不锈钢具有极高的耐腐蚀性,再一些介质中,如醋酸,甲酸等甚至可以取代高合金奥氏体不锈钢,乃至耐蚀合金。
     4)具有良好的耐局部腐蚀性能,与合金含量相当的奥氏体不锈钢相比,它的耐磨损腐蚀和疲劳腐蚀性能都优于奥氏体不锈钢。
    5)比奥氏体不锈钢的线膨胀系数低,和碳钢接近,适合与碳钢连接,具有重要的工程意义,如生产复合板或衬里等。                   
     6)不论在动载或静载条件下,比奥氏体不锈钢具有更高的能量吸取能力,这对结构件应付突发事故如冲撞,爆炸等,双相不锈钢优势明显,有实际应用价值。


     与奥氏体不锈钢相比,双相不锈钢的弱势如下:

     1)应用的普遍性与多面性不如奥氏体不锈钢,例如其使用温度必须控制在250摄氏度以下。
      2)其塑韧性较奥氏体不锈钢低,冷,热加工工艺和成型性能不如奥氏体不锈钢。
      3)存在中温脆性区,需要严格控制热处理和焊接的工艺制度,以避免有害相的出现,损害性能。
      与铁素体不锈钢相比,双相不锈钢的优势如下:
1)综合力学性能比铁素体不锈钢好,尤其是塑韧性,不象铁素体不锈钢那样对脆性敏感。
2)除耐应力腐蚀性能外,其他耐局部腐蚀性能都优于铁素体不锈钢。
 3)冷加工工艺性能和冷成型性能远优于铁素体不锈钢。
 4)焊接性能也远优于铁素体不锈钢,一般焊前不需预热,焊后不需热处理。
5)应用范围较铁素体不锈钢宽。
与铁素体不锈钢相比,双相不锈钢的弱势如下:
合金元素含量高,价格相对高,一般铁素体不含镍。
综上所述,可以概括地看出DSS的使用性能和工艺性能的概貌,它以其优越的力学与耐腐蚀综合性能赢得了使用者的青睐,已成为既节省重量又节省投资的优良的耐蚀工程材料。

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