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西安双相不锈钢

日期:2021-10-18 03:42
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摘要:<span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">西安双相不锈钢(</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">Duplex Stainless Steel</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,简称</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">DSS</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">),指铁素体与奥氏体各约占</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">50%</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,一般较少相的含量*少也需要达到</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">30%</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">的不锈钢。在含</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">C</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">较低的情况下,</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">Cr</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">含量在</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">18%~28%</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">Ni</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">含量在</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">3%~10%</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">。有些钢还含有</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">Mo</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">、</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">Cu</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">、</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">Nb</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">、</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">Ti</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">、</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">N</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">等合金元素。双相不锈钢从</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">20</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">世纪</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">40</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">年代在美国诞生以来,已经发展到第三代。它的主要特点是屈服强度可达</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">400-550MPa</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,是普通不锈钢的</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">2</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">倍,因此可以节约用材,降低设备制造成本。西安双相不锈钢在抗腐蚀方面,特别是介质环境比较恶劣(如海水,氯离子含量较高)的条件下,双相不锈钢的抗点蚀、缝隙腐蚀、应力腐蚀及腐蚀疲劳性能明显优于普通的奥氏体不锈钢,可以与高合金奥氏体不锈钢媲美。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">性能特点</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">由于两相组织的特点,通过正确控制化学成分和热处理工艺,使双相不锈钢兼有铁素体不锈钢和奥氏体不锈钢的优点,它将奥氏体不锈钢所具有的优良韧性和焊接性与铁素体不锈钢所具有的较高强度和耐</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">氯化物应力腐蚀性能结合在一起,正是这些优越的性能使双相不锈钢作为可焊接的结构材料发展迅速,</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">80</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">年代以来已成为和马氏体型、奥氏体型和铁素体型不锈钢并列的一个钢类。西安双相不锈钢有以下性能特点:</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">(</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">1</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">)含钼双相不锈钢在低应力下有良好的耐氯化物应力腐蚀性能。一般</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">18-8</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">型奥氏体不锈钢在</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">60°C</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">以上中性氯化物溶液中容易发生应力腐蚀断裂,在微量氯化物及硫化氢工业介质中用这类不锈钢制造的热交换器、蒸发器等设备都存在着产生应力腐蚀断裂的倾向,而双相不锈钢却有良好的抵抗能力。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">(</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">2</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">)含钼双相不锈钢有良好的耐孔蚀性能。在具有相同的孔蚀抗力当量值(</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">PRE=Cr%+3.3Mo%+16N%</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">)时,双相不锈钢与奥氏体不锈钢的临界孔蚀电位相仿。双相不锈钢与奥氏体不锈钢耐孔蚀性能与</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">AISI 316L</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">相当。含</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">25%Cr</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">的,尤其是含氮的高铬双相不锈钢的耐孔蚀和缝隙腐蚀性能超过了</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">AISI 316L</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">(</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">3</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">)具有良好的耐腐蚀疲劳和磨损腐蚀性能。在某些腐蚀介质的条件下,适用于制作泵、阀等动力设备。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">(</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">4</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">)综合力学性能好。有较高的强度和疲劳强度,屈服强度是</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">18-8</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">型奥氏体不锈钢的</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">2</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">倍。固溶态的延伸率达到</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">25%</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,韧性值</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">AK</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">(</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">V</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">型槽口)在</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">100J</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">以上。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">(</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">5</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">)可焊性良好,热裂倾向小,一般焊前不需预热,焊后不需热处理,可与</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">18-8</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">型奥氏体不锈钢或碳钢等异种焊接。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">(</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">6</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">)含低铬(</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">18%Cr</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">)的双相不锈钢热加工温度范围比</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">18-8</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">型奥氏体不锈钢宽,抗力小,可不经过锻造,直接轧制开坯生产钢板。含高铬(</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">25%Cr</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">)的双相不锈钢热加工比奥氏体不锈钢略显困难,可以生产板、管和丝等产品。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">(</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">7</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">)冷加工时比</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">18-8</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">型奥氏体不锈钢加工硬化效应大,在管、板承受变形初期,需施加较大应力才能变形。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">(</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">8</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">)与奥氏体不锈钢相比,导热系数大,线膨胀系数小,适合用作设备的衬里和生产复合板。也适合制作热交换器的管芯,换热效率比奥氏体不锈钢高。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">(</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">9</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">)仍有高铬铁素体不锈钢的各种脆性倾向,不宜用在高于</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">300°C</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">的工作条件。双相不锈钢中含铬量愈低,</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">σ</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">等脆性相的危害性也愈小。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <a name="para5"></a><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">用途</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">用于炼油、化肥、造纸、石油、化工等耐海水耐高温浓硝酸等热交换器和冷淋器及器件。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">4</span></span><a name="para6"></a><a name="6"></a><span style="mso-bookmark:para6;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">分类先容</span></span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <a name="para7"></a><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">双相不锈钢</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">类属低合金型,代表牌号</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">UNS S32304</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">(</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">23Cr-4Ni-0.1N</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">),钢中不含钼,</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">PREN</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">值为</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">24-25</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,在耐应力腐蚀方面可代替</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">AISI304</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">或</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">316</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">使用。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">**类属中合金型,代表牌号是</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">UNS S31803</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">(</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">22Cr-5Ni-3Mo-0.15N</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">)</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">,PREN</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">值为</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">32-33</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,其耐蚀性能介于</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">AISI 316L</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">和</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">6%Mo+N</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">奥氏体不锈钢之间。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">第三类属高合金型,一般含</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">25%Cr</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,还含有钼和氮,有的还含有铜和钨,标准牌号</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">UNSS32550</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">(</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">25Cr-6Ni-3Mo-2Cu-0.2N</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">),</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">PREN</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">值为</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">38-39</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,这类钢的耐蚀性能高于</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">22%Cr</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">的双相不锈钢。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">第四类属超级双相不锈钢型,含高钼和氮,标准牌号</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">UNS&nbsp;S32750</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">(</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">25Cr-7Ni-3.7Mo-0.3N</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">)</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">,</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">有的也含钨和铜</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">,PREN</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">值大于</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">40,</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">可适用于苛刻的介质条件</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">,</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">具有良好的耐蚀与力学综合性</span></span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;"> </span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">能,可与超级奥氏体不锈钢相媲美。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <a name="para8"></a><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">不锈钢</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">不锈钢钢种很多,性能各异,它在发展过程中逐步形成了几大类。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">按组织结构分,分为马氏不锈钢(包括沉淀硬化不锈钢)、铁素体不锈钢、奥氏体不锈钢和奥氏体加铁素体双相不锈钢等四大类;</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">按钢中的主要化学成分或钢中的一些特征元素来分类,分为铬不锈钢、铬镍不锈钢、铬镍钼不锈钢以及低碳不锈钢、高钼不锈钢、高纯不锈钢等;</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">按钢的性能特点和用途分类,分为耐硝酸不锈钢、耐硫酸不锈钢、耐点蚀不锈钢、耐应力腐蚀不锈钢、高强不锈钢等;</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">按钢的功能特点分类,分为低温不锈钢、无磁不锈钢、易切削不锈钢、超塑性不锈钢等。常用的分类方法是按钢的组织结构特点和钢的化学成分特点以及两者相结合的方法分类。一般分为马氏体不锈钢、铁素体不锈钢、奥氏体不锈钢、双相不锈钢和沉淀硬化型不锈钢等,或分为铬不锈钢和镍不锈钢两大类。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">5</span></span><a name="para9"></a><a name="9"></a><span style="mso-bookmark:para9;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">西安双相不锈钢焊接特性</span></span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">双相不锈钢具有良好的焊接性能,与铁素体不锈钢及奥氏体不锈钢相比,它既不像铁素体不锈钢的焊接热影响区,由于晶粒严重粗化而使塑韧性大幅降低,也不像奥氏体不锈钢那样,对焊接热裂纹比较敏感。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">双相不锈钢由于其特殊的优点,广泛应用于石油化工设备、海水与废水处理设备、输油输气管线、造纸机械等工业领域,近些年来也被研究用于桥梁承重结构领域,具有很好的发展前景。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">节约型双相钢</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">"</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">经常会出现的焊接性能问题。而焊接标准双相钢并不是一个问题,而且不论采用何种工艺,都有适合这些应用的焊材。从金相的角度来看,焊接</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">2101</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">(</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">1.4162</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">)根本就没有问题,实际上它甚至要比标准级的双相钢更加容易焊接,因为这种材料事实上可以采用乙炔焊工艺来进行焊接,而对于标准双相钢材料而言,始终必须避免使用这种工艺。焊接</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">2101</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">所面临的实际问题是熔池的粘度不同,因此可湿性差了一点。这迫使操作人员在焊接的过程中更加多地使用电弧焊,而这正是问题的所在。尽管可以通过选择超合金化焊材加以弥补,但是大家经常希翼选择匹配的焊材。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">在</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">2101</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">中,也存在低温热影响区和高温热影响区中的显微结构之间的热影响区相互作用,比</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">2304</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">、</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">2205</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">或</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">2507</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">更加有利。在以</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">2101</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">进行试验时,也已经发现由于镍含量较低,因此产生了含有较多氮与锰的不同类型的</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">"</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">回火色</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">"</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,而这影响了腐蚀性能。在电弧和熔池中发生的这一成分损失是由于氮与锰的蒸发与熔敷,这对于双相钢等级的材料来说是一个新问题,因此在这次讲课中将作了较多描述。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <a name="para10"></a><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">焊接特点</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">双相不锈钢其焊接特点如下:</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">双相不锈钢在正常固溶处理</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">(1020</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">℃~</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">1100</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">℃加热并水冷</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">)</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">后</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">,</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">钢中含有大约</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">50%</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">~</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">60%</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">奥氏体和</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">50%</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">~</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">40%</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">铁素体组织。随着加热温度的提高,两相比例变化并不明显。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">双相不锈钢具有良好的低温冲击韧性,如</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">20mm</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">厚的板材横向试样在</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">-80</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">℃时冲击吸取功可达</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">100J</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">以上。在大多数介质中其耐均匀腐蚀性能和耐点腐蚀性能均较好,但要注意,该类钢在低于</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">950</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">℃热处理时,由于</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">σ</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">相的析出,其耐应力腐蚀性能将显著变坏。由于该钢</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">Cr</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">当量与</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">Ni</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">当量比值适当,在高温加热后仍保留有较大量的一次奥氏体组织</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">,</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">又可使二次奥氏体在冷却过程中生成</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">,</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">结果钢中奥氏体相总量不低于</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">30%</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">~</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">40%</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">因而使钢具有良好的耐晶间腐蚀性能。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">另外,如前所述,在焊接这种钢时裂纹倾向很低,不须预热和焊后热处理。由于母材中含有较高的</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">N</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,焊接近缝区不会形成单相铁素体区,奥氏体含量一般不低于</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">30%</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">。适用的焊接方法有钨极氩弧焊和焊条电弧焊等,一般为了防止近缝区晶粒粗化,施焊时,应尽量使用低的线能量焊接。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <a name="para11"></a><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">影响因素</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">影响双相不锈钢焊接质量的因素主要体现在以下几方面:</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">含</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">N</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">量影响</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">Gómez de Salazar JM</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">等人研究了保护气体中</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US"> N2</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">的不同含量对双相不锈钢性能的影响。结果表明,随着混合气体中</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US"> N2</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">分压</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US"> PN2</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">的增加,焊缝中氮的质量分数</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">ω(N)</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">开始迅速增加,然后变化很小,焊缝中的铁素体相含量</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">φ(α)</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">随</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">ω(N)</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">增加呈线性下降,但</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">φ(α)</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">对抗拉强度和伸长率的影响与</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">ω(N)</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">的影响刚好相反。同样的铁素体相含量</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">φ(α)</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,母材的抗拉强度和伸长率均高于焊缝。这是由于显微组织的不同所造成的。双相不锈钢焊缝金属中含</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US"> N </span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">量提高后可以改善接头的冲击韧性,这是由于增加了焊缝金属中的</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">γ</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">相含量,以及减少了</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">Cr2N </span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">的析出。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">热输入影响</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">与焊缝区不同,焊接时热影响区的</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">ω(N)</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">是不会发生变化的,它就是母材的</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">ω(N)</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,所以此时影响组织和性能的主要因素是焊接时的热输入。根据文献</span></span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;"> </span><span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,焊接时应选择合适的线能量。焊接时如果热输入太大,焊缝热影响区范围增大,金相组织也趋于晶粒粗大、紊乱,造成脆化,主要表现为焊接接头的塑性指标下降。如焊接热输入太小,造成淬硬组织并易产生裂纹,对</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">HAZ</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">的冲击韧性同样不利。此外,凡影响冷却速度的因素都会影响到</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US"> HAZ </span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">的冲击韧性,如板厚、接头形式等。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">σ</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">相脆化</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">国外文献先容了再热引起的双相不锈钢及其焊缝金属的</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">σ</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">相脆化问题。母材和焊缝金属的再热过程中,先由</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">α</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">相形成细小的二次奥氏体</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">γ*</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,然后析出</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">σ</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">相。结果表明,脆性开裂都发生于</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">σ</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">相以及基体与</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">σ</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">相的界面处,对母材断口观察表明,在</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">σ</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">相周围区域内都为韧窝,由于</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">α</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">相区宽,大量生成的</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">σ</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">相才会使韧性降低,然而在焊缝中</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">α</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">相区是细小的,断口仍表现为脆性断裂,只要少量的</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">σ</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">相生成就足以引起焊缝金属韧性的降低,因此,焊缝金属中的</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">σ</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">相脆化倾向比母材要大得多。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">氢致裂纹</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">双相不锈钢焊接接头的氢脆通常发生于</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">α</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">相,且氢脆的敏感性随焊接时峰值温度的升高而增加。其微观组织的变化为:峰值温度增加,</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">γ</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">相含量减少,</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">α</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">相含量增加,同时由</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">α</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">相边界和内部析出的</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">Cr2N </span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">量增加,故极易发生氢脆。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">应力腐蚀开裂</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">母材和焊缝金属中的裂纹都起始于</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">α/γ</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">界面的</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">α</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">相一侧,并在</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">α</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">相内扩展。奥氏体(</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">γ</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">)由于其固有的低氢脆敏感性,因此,可起到阻挡裂纹扩展的作用。由于</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">DSS </span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">中含有一定量的奥氏体,所以其应力腐蚀开裂倾向性较小。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">点蚀问题</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">耐点蚀是双相不锈钢的一个重要特性,与其化学成分和微观组织有着密切关系。点蚀一般产生于</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">α/γ</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">界面,因此被认为是产生于</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">γ</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">相和</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">α</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">相之间的</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">γ*</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">相。这意味着</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">γ*</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">相中的含</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">Cr</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">量低于</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">γ</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">相。</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">γ*</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">相与</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">γ</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">相的成分不同,是由于</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">γ* </span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">相中</span></span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;"> </span><span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">的</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">Cr </span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">和</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">Mo</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">含量低于初始</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">γ</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">相中的</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">Cr</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">、</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">Mo</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">含量。进一步研究表明,含</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">N</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">量较低的钢,其点蚀电位对冷却速度较为敏感。因此,在焊接含</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US"> N </span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">量较低的双相不锈钢时,对冷却速度的控制要求更加严格。在双相不锈钢焊接过程中,合理控制焊接线能量是获得高质量双相不锈钢接头的关键。线能量过小,焊缝金属及热影响区的冷却速度过快,奥氏体来不及析出,从而使组织中的铁素体相含量增多;如线能量过大,尽管组织中能形成足量的奥氏体,但也会引起热影响区内的铁素体晶粒长大以及</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">σ</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">相等有害相的析出。一般情况下,焊条电弧焊(</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">Shieded Metal Arc Welding</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">SMAW</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">)、钨极氩弧焊(</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">Gas Tungsten Arc Welding</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">GTAW</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">)、药芯焊丝电弧焊(</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">Flux-Cored WireArc Welding</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">FCAW</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">)和等离子弧焊(</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">Plasma Arc Welding</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">PAW</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">)等焊接方法均可用于双相不锈钢的焊接,且在焊前一般不需要采取预热措施,焊后也不需进行热处理。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <a name="para12"></a><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">西安双相不锈钢工艺提升</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">1 </span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">合金元素和冷却速度</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">实验和理论计算表明:临界区加热后获得双相组织所需的临界冷却速率与钢中锰含量具有一定关系。其根钢中存在的合金元素,就可估算获得双相组织所需要的临界冷却速率,为热处理双相钢生产时,选择适当的冷却方法提供依据。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">当钢的化学成分一定时,应在保证获得双相组织的前提下,尽可能采用较低的冷却速度,使铁素体中的碳有充分的时间扩散到奥氏体中,从而降低双相钢的屈服强度,提高双相钢的延性。如果钢中合金元素含量较</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">4</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,临界冷却速度过高,冷却后铁素体中含有较高的固溶碳,不利于获得优良性能的双相钢,这时应改变钢的化学成分,增加钢中的合金元素含量,从而降低临界冷却速度,或者在双相钢的生产工艺中,加入补充回火工序,降低铁素体中的固溶碳,改善双相钢的性能。如果钢中含有强的碳化物形成元素,当估算临界冷却速率时,应考虑到这些元素对临界区加热时所形的奥氏体淬透性和有利影响,</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">V</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">和</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">Ti</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">的碳化物粒子可以通过相界面的钉扎作用提高奥氏体的淬透性,降低临界冷却速度</span><span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';">.</span></span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">2.</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">两阶段冷却工艺</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">当钢中合金元素含量较低时,冷却速度较慢会得到铁素体加珠光体组织;冷却速度较快时,则铁素体中保留固溶碳较高,不利于降低屈服强度和提高延性。采用两阶段冷却可以改善双相钢的性能,即从临界区加热温度缓冷到某一温度,然后快冷。缓冷可以使铁素体中的碳向未转变的奥氏体富聚。而快冷则可以避免未转变的奥氏体等温分解,保证获得所需的双相组织和性能。例如</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">0.08%C-1.4%Mn</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">钢,从</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">800</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">℃</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">;</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">加热到水冷的力学性能为:</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">σ0.2=365PMa</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">σb=700MPa</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">σ0.2/σb=0.52</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">eu=18%</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">et=21%</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">。如采用两阶段冷却工艺,即在</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">800</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">℃</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">;</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">加热后,空冷到</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">600</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">℃</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">;</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,然后水冷,其性能为:</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">σ0.2=280MPa</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">σb=600MPa</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">σ0.2/σb=0.47</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">eu=21%</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">et=29%</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">。两阶段冷却使双相钢的屈服强度降低,延性提高。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">3.</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">双相钢板热轧后盘卷温度的影响</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">对于一个给定成分的钢,临界区加热时奥氏体的淬透性可以通过钢板热轧后高温卷来修正。高温盘卷可使碳、锰等合金元素在**组(珠光体或贝氏体)中明显富集。有利提高随后临界区处理时双相钢的综合性能。以</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">0.049%C-1.99%Mn-0.028%Al-0.0019%N</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">钢的试验结果为例,采用两种工艺过程:一种为普通扎制工艺,终轧温度</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">900</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">℃</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">;→</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">油冷到</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">600</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">℃</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">;</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">盘卷</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">→</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">吹风冷到室温</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">→</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">冷轧</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">70%→</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">连续退火。两种盘卷工艺的碳和锰分布的分析结果可见高温盘卷可使碳和锰在**相中明显富集,而普通的轧制工艺锰基本无富集趋势。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">用高温盘卷以修正合金含量较低的钢在随后临界区处理时的淬透性,并降低热处理双相钢的屈服强度,提高其延性的技术,已在有关工厂用于热处理双相钢的生产,所得到的热处理双相钢板综合性能良好,板材各部位的性能均匀,纵向、横向性能一致。例如对</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">0.09%C-0.44Si-1.54%Mn-0.023%Al</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">钢。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <a name="para13"></a><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">限制要求</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">1.</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">需要对相比例进行控制,*合适的比例是铁素体相和奥氏体相约各占一半,其中某一相的数量*多不能超过</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">65%</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,这样才能保证有*佳的综合性能。如果两相比例失调,例如铁素体相数量过多,很容易在焊接</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">HAZ</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">形成单相铁素体,在某些介质中对应力腐蚀破裂敏感。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">2.</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">需要掌握双相不锈钢的组织转变规律,熟悉每一个钢种的</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">TTT</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">和</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">CCT</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">转变曲线,这是正确引导制定双相不锈钢热处理,热成型等工艺的关键,双相不锈钢脆性相的析出要比奥氏体不锈钢敏感的多。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">3.</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">双相不锈钢的连续使用温度范围为</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">-50</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">~</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">250</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">℃,下限取决于钢的脆性转变温度,上限受到</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">475</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">℃脆性的限制,上限温度不能超过</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">300</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">℃。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">4.</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">双相不锈钢固溶处理后需要快冷,缓慢冷却会引起脆性相的析出,从而导致钢的韧性,特别是耐局部腐蚀性能的下降。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">5.</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">高铬钼双相不锈钢的热加工与热成型的下限温度不能低于</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">950</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">℃,超级双相不锈钢不能低于</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">980</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">℃低铬钼双相不锈钢不能低于</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">900</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">℃,避免因脆性相的析出在加工过程造成表面裂纹</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">6.</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">不能使用奥氏体不锈钢常用的</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">650-800</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">℃的消除应力处理,一般采用固溶退火处理。对于在低合金钢的表面堆焊双相不锈钢后,需要进行</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">600-650</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">℃整体消应处理时,必须考虑到因脆性相的析出所带来的韧性和耐腐蚀性,尤其是耐局部腐蚀性能的下降问题,尽可能缩短在这一温度范围内的加热时间。低合金钢和双相不锈钢复合板的热处理问题也要同此考虑。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">7.</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">需要熟悉了解双相不锈钢的焊接规律,不能全部套用奥氏体不锈钢的焊接,双相不锈钢的设备能否安全使用与正确掌握钢的焊接工艺有很大关系,一些设备的失效往往与焊接有关。关键在于线能量和层间温度的控制,正确选择焊接材料也很重要。焊接接头(焊缝金属和焊接</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">HAZ</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">)的两相比例,尤其是焊接</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">HAZ</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">维持必要的奥氏体数量,这对保证焊接接头具有与母材同等的性能很重要。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">8.</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">在不同的腐蚀环境中选用双相不锈钢时,要注意钢的耐腐蚀性总是相对的,尽管双相不锈钢有较好的耐局部腐蚀性能,就某一个双相不锈钢而言,他也是有一个适用的介质条件范围,包括温度、压力、介质浓度、</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">pH</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">值等,需要慎重加以选择。从文献和手册中获取的数据很多是实验室的腐蚀试验结果,往往与工程的实际条件有差距,因此在选材时需要注意,必要时需要进行在实际介质中的腐蚀试验或是现场条件下的挂片试验,甚至模拟装置的试验。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">6</span></span><a name="para14"></a><a name="14"></a><span style="mso-bookmark:para14;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">焊材选用要求</span></span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <a name="para15"></a><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">焊材要求</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">焊材包括:①填充金属;②保护气体和背面保护气体。分述如下。在焊态下使用的焊接结构,其焊缝金属与母材相比应是合金元素镍含量较高的。这是为了保证合适的铁素体和奥氏体的相比例。这一纯焊缝金属在焊态下,必须有这样的成分,即能在结晶后直接均匀地形成以奥氏体为主(</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">30%</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">~</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">70%</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">)的并含有铁素体的双相组织。当焊件可在</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">1050</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">~</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">1100</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">℃温度下退火时,应该选择与母材成分(</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">Ni=55%</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">~</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">70%</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">)相当的焊缝金属。在这种焊接工艺中,焊后占主要的铁素体基体转变形成了平衡的铁素体</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">/</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">奥氏体组织。焊接双相不锈钢和超级双相不锈钢的焊材均是配套设计的(详见表</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">1</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">和表</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">2</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">)。手工焊用的涂药焊条既可以用钛型药皮焊条,也可以用碱**皮焊条。碱**皮的焊条对全位置的焊接更适宜一些,而铁型悍条工艺性优良,在几乎所有的实际应用中都可获得满意的效果。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">采用填充焊丝和其他焊接方法(</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">GTAW</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">、</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">GMAW</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">、</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">SAW</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">)熔敷的焊缝金属与焊丝有类似的化学成分。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">保护气体适用于各种气体保护焊方法(见表</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">3</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">)。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">表</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">1</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">双相不锈钢的配套焊接材料</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">背面保护气体用于单面焊的焊管内部气体保护,即可以用于工业纯氩气,也可以用于高纯度氩气(</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">99.99%</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">)。在所有情况下,气体都应该干燥(</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">PrEN439:</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">除</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">CO2</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">外,所有气体*大不超过</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">40ppm</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">露点*高</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">-50</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">℃,</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">CO2</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">中的水分*大不超过</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">200ppm</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,露点*高为</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">-35</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">℃),因该采取各种措施避免水分侵入保护气体中。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">保护气体和背面保护气体对焊缝金属的含氮量有影响。由于保护气体中的</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">N2</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">分压低,可能从焊缝熔池中扩散出</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">N2</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,从而使焊缝金属氮量降低,*大可减少</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">0.05%N2</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">。存在这种危险时,在保护气体和背面保护气体中必须加入</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">5%N2</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,以防止焊缝金属</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">N2</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">损失。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <a name="para16"></a><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">焊材选用</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">双相不锈钢用的焊材,其特点是焊缝组织为奥氏体占优的双相组织,主要耐蚀元素</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">(</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">铬、钼等</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">)</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">含量与母材相当,从而保证与母材相当的耐蚀性。为了保证焊缝中奥氏体的含量,通常是提高镍和氮的含量,也就是提高约</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">2% ~ 4%</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">的镍当量。在双相不锈钢母材中,一般都有一定量的氮含量,在焊材中也希翼有一定的含氮量,但一般不宜太高,否则会产生气孔。这样镍含量较高就成了焊材与母材的一个主要区别。  根据耐腐蚀性、接头韧性的要求不同来选择与母材化学成分相匹配的焊条,如焊接</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">Cr22</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">型双相不锈钢,可选用</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">Cr22Ni9Mo3</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">型焊条,如</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">E2209</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">焊条。采用酸性焊条时脱渣优良,焊缝成形美观,但冲击韧性较低,当要求焊缝金属具有较高的冲击韧性,并需进行全位置焊接时,应采用碱性焊条。当根部封底焊时,通常采用碱性焊条。当对焊缝金属的耐腐蚀性能具有特殊要求时,还应采用超级双相钢成分的碱性焊条。  对于实心气体保护焊焊丝,在保证焊缝金属具有良好耐腐蚀性与力学性能的同时,还应注意其焊接工艺性能,对于药芯焊丝,当要求焊缝成形美观时,可采用金红石型或钛钙型药芯焊丝,当要求较高的冲击韧度或在较大的拘束度条件下焊接时,宜采用碱度较高的药芯焊丝。  对于埋弧焊宜采用直径较小的焊丝,实现中小焊接规范下的多层多道焊,以防止焊接热影响区及焊缝金属的脆化,并采用配套的碱性焊剂。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">7</span></span><a name="para17"></a><a name="17"></a><span style="mso-bookmark:para17;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">国家标准</span></span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <a name="para18"></a><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">西安双相不锈钢牌号</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">我国新标准</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">GB/T 20878-2007</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">《不锈钢和耐热钢牌号及化学成分》中加入了许多双相不锈钢牌号。如:</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">14Cr18Ni11Si4AlTi</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">、</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US"> 022Cr19Ni5Mo3Si2N</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">、</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">12Cr21Ni5Ti</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">。更多的牌号见标准。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">另外:杰出的</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">2205</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">双相钢相当于我国的</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">022Cr23Ni5Mo3N.</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">*后,一些网页甚至论文将双相不锈钢写作双向不锈钢是错误的。双相是指金相组织的有两种,而非方向的</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">“</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">向</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">”</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <a name="para19"></a><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">西安双相不锈钢化学成分</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <table style="border:currentColor;border-image:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-collapse:collapse;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-padding-alt:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt 11.25pt;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="132" style="padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;border:1pt solid #E2E5F3;border-image:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;width:99pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">钢号</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="48" style="border-width:1pt 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:solid solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;border-image:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;width:36pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">C≤</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="72" style="border-width:1pt 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:solid solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;border-image:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;width:54pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">Mn≤</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="72" style="border-width:1pt 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:solid solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;border-image:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;width:54pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">Si≤</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="48" style="border-width:1pt 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:solid solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;border-image:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;width:36pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">S≤</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="48" style="border-width:1pt 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:solid solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;border-image:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;width:36pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">P≤</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="72" style="border-width:1pt 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:solid solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;border-image:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;width:54pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">Cr≤</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="72" style="border-width:1pt 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:solid solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;border-image:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;width:54pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">Ni</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="72" style="border-width:1pt 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:solid solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;border-image:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;width:54pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">Mo</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="48" style="border-width:1pt 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:solid solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;border-image:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;width:36pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">Cu≤</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="72" style="border-width:1pt 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:solid solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;border-image:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;width:54pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">N</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> </tr> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:1;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="132" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;border-image:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;width:99pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">S32750</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">(</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">SAF2507</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">)</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">00Cr25Ni7Mo4N</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="48" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:36pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">0.03</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="72" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:54pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">1.20</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="72" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:54pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">0.8</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="48" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:36pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">0.020</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="48" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:36pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">0.035</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="72" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:54pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">24.0/26.0</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="72" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:54pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">6.0/8.0</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="72" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:54pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">3.0/5.0</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="48" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:36pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">0.50</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="72" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:54pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">0.24/0.32</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> </tr> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:2;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="132" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;border-image:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;width:99pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">S31803(SAF2205)</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">00Cr22Ni5Mo3N</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="48" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:36pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">0.03</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="72" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:54pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">2.00</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="72" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:54pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">1.0</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="48" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:36pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">0.020</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="48" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:36pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">0.030</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="72" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:54pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">21.0/23.0</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="72" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:54pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">4.50/6.50</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="72" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:54pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">2.50/3.50</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;"> </span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="72" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:54pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">0.08/0.20</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> </tr> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:3;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="132" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;border-image:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;width:99pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">S31500(3RE60)</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">00Cr18Ni5Mo3Siz</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="48" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:36pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">0.03</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="72" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:54pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">1.2/2.00</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="72" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:54pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">1.4/2.00</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="48" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:36pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">0.030</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="48" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:36pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">0.030</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="72" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:54pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">18.0/19.0</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="72" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:54pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">4.25/5.25</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="72" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:54pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">2.50/3.00</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;"> </span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="72" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:54pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">0.05/0.10</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> </tr> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> </tbody> </table> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <a name="para20"></a><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">机械性能</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <table style="border:currentColor;border-image:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-collapse:collapse;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-padding-alt:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt 11.25pt;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="177" style="padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;border:1pt solid #E2E5F3;border-image:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;width:132.9pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;" rowspan="2"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">钢号</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="87" style="border-width:1pt 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:solid solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;border-image:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;width:65.45pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;" rowspan="2"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">σb(Mpa)≥</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="86" style="border-width:1pt 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:solid solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;border-image:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;width:64.25pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;" rowspan="2"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">σs(Mpa)≥</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="65" style="border-width:1pt 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:solid solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;border-image:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;width:48.95pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;" rowspan="2"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">δ(%)≥</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="168" style="border-width:1pt 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:solid solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;border-image:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;width:126.25pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;" colspan="2"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><span style="font-size:small;">硬度</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> </tr> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:1;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="82" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:61.15pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">布氏</span><span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';">(HB)</span></span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="87" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:65.1pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">洛氏</span><span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';">(HRC)</span></span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> </tr> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:2;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="177" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;border-image:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;width:132.9pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">S32750</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">(</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">SAF2507</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">)</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">00Cr25Ni7Mo4N</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="87" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:65.45pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">800</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="86" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:64.25pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">550</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="65" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:48.95pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">15</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="82" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:61.15pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">310</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="87" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:65.1pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">32</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> </tr> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:3;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="177" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;border-image:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;width:132.9pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">S3180.(SAF2507)</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">00Cr22Ni5Mo3N</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="87" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:65.45pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">620</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="86" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:64.25pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">450</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="65" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:48.95pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">25</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="82" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:61.15pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">290</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="87" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:65.1pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">30.5</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> </tr> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:4;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="177" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;border-image:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;width:132.9pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">S31500(3RE60)</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">00Cr18Ni5Mo3Siz</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="87" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:65.45pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">630</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="86" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:64.25pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">440</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="65" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:48.95pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">30</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="82" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:61.15pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">290</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> <td width="87" style="border-width:0px 1pt 1pt 0px;border-style:/timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none solid solid /timemodel/datuminfo/2017-08-15/none;border-color:#000000 #E2E5F3 #E2E5F3 #000000;padding:6.75pt 11.25pt 5.25pt;width:65.1pt;background-color:transparent;mso-border-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;mso-border-top-alt:solid #E2E5F3 .75pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';font-size:small;">30.5</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> </td> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> </tr> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> </tbody> </table> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span> <p style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt;"> <span style="font-size:small;"><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">西安双相不锈钢由于具有奥氏体</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">+</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">铁素体双相组织,且两个相组织的含量基本相当,故兼有奥氏体不锈钢和铁素体不锈钢的特点。屈服强度可达</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">400Mpa ~ 550MPa</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,是普通奥氏体不锈钢的</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">2</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">倍。与铁素体不锈钢相比,双相不锈钢的韧性高,脆性转变温度低,耐晶间腐蚀性能和焊接性能均显著提高;同时又保留了铁素体不锈钢的一些特点,如</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">475</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">℃脆性、热导率高、线膨胀系数小,具有超塑性及磁性等。与奥氏体不锈钢相比,双相不锈钢的强度高,特别是屈服强度显著提高,且耐孔蚀性、耐应力腐蚀、耐腐蚀疲劳等性能也有明显的改善。  双相不锈钢按其化学成分分类,可分为</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">Cr18</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">型、</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">Cr23(</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">不含</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">Mo)</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">型、</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">Cr22</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">型和</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">Cr25</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">型四类。对于</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">Cr25</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">型双相不锈钢又可分为普通型和超级双相不锈钢,其中应用较多的是</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">Cr22</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">型和</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">Cr25</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">型。我国采用的双相不锈钢以瑞典产居多,具体牌号有:</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">3RE60(Cr18</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">型</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">)</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">SAF2304 (Cr23</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">型</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">)</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">SAF2205 (Cr22</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">型</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">)</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">,</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">SAF2507(Cr25</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">型</span><span style="font-family:'Times New Roman';"><span lang="EN-US">)</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;mso-ascii-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-hansi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">。</span></span> </p> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:small;"> </span>

西安双相不锈钢(Duplex Stainless Steel,简称DSS),指铁素体与奥氏体各约占50%,一般较少相的含量*少也需要达到30%的不锈钢。在含C较低的情况下,Cr含量在18%~28%Ni含量在3%~10%。有些钢还含有MoCuNbTiN等合金元素。双相不锈钢从20世纪40年代在美国诞生以来,已经发展到第三代。它的主要特点是屈服强度可达400-550MPa,是普通不锈钢的2倍,因此可以节约用材,降低设备制造成本。西安双相不锈钢在抗腐蚀方面,特别是介质环境比较恶劣(如海水,氯离子含量较高)的条件下,双相不锈钢的抗点蚀、缝隙腐蚀、应力腐蚀及腐蚀疲劳性能明显优于普通的奥氏体不锈钢,可以与高合金奥氏体不锈钢媲美。

性能特点

由于两相组织的特点,通过正确控制化学成分和热处理工艺,使双相不锈钢兼有铁素体不锈钢和奥氏体不锈钢的优点,它将奥氏体不锈钢所具有的优良韧性和焊接性与铁素体不锈钢所具有的较高强度和耐

氯化物应力腐蚀性能结合在一起,正是这些优越的性能使双相不锈钢作为可焊接的结构材料发展迅速,80年代以来已成为和马氏体型、奥氏体型和铁素体型不锈钢并列的一个钢类。西安双相不锈钢有以下性能特点:

1)含钼双相不锈钢在低应力下有良好的耐氯化物应力腐蚀性能。一般18-8型奥氏体不锈钢在60°C以上中性氯化物溶液中容易发生应力腐蚀断裂,在微量氯化物及硫化氢工业介质中用这类不锈钢制造的热交换器、蒸发器等设备都存在着产生应力腐蚀断裂的倾向,而双相不锈钢却有良好的抵抗能力。

2)含钼双相不锈钢有良好的耐孔蚀性能。在具有相同的孔蚀抗力当量值(PRE=Cr%+3.3Mo%+16N%)时,双相不锈钢与奥氏体不锈钢的临界孔蚀电位相仿。双相不锈钢与奥氏体不锈钢耐孔蚀性能与AISI 316L相当。含25%Cr的,尤其是含氮的高铬双相不锈钢的耐孔蚀和缝隙腐蚀性能超过了AISI 316L

3)具有良好的耐腐蚀疲劳和磨损腐蚀性能。在某些腐蚀介质的条件下,适用于制作泵、阀等动力设备。

4)综合力学性能好。有较高的强度和疲劳强度,屈服强度是18-8型奥氏体不锈钢的2倍。固溶态的延伸率达到25%,韧性值AKV型槽口)在100J以上。

5)可焊性良好,热裂倾向小,一般焊前不需预热,焊后不需热处理,可与18-8型奥氏体不锈钢或碳钢等异种焊接。

6)含低铬(18%Cr)的双相不锈钢热加工温度范围比18-8型奥氏体不锈钢宽,抗力小,可不经过锻造,直接轧制开坯生产钢板。含高铬(25%Cr)的双相不锈钢热加工比奥氏体不锈钢略显困难,可以生产板、管和丝等产品。

7)冷加工时比18-8型奥氏体不锈钢加工硬化效应大,在管、板承受变形初期,需施加较大应力才能变形。

8)与奥氏体不锈钢相比,导热系数大,线膨胀系数小,适合用作设备的衬里和生产复合板。也适合制作热交换器的管芯,换热效率比奥氏体不锈钢高。

9)仍有高铬铁素体不锈钢的各种脆性倾向,不宜用在高于300°C的工作条件。双相不锈钢中含铬量愈低,σ等脆性相的危害性也愈小。

用途

用于炼油、化肥、造纸、石油、化工等耐海水耐高温浓硝酸等热交换器和冷淋器及器件。

4分类先容

双相不锈钢

类属低合金型,代表牌号UNS S3230423Cr-4Ni-0.1N),钢中不含钼,PREN值为24-25,在耐应力腐蚀方面可代替AISI304316使用。

**类属中合金型,代表牌号是UNS S3180322Cr-5Ni-3Mo-0.15N,PREN值为32-33,其耐蚀性能介于AISI 316L6%Mo+N奥氏体不锈钢之间。

第三类属高合金型,一般含25%Cr,还含有钼和氮,有的还含有铜和钨,标准牌号UNSS3255025Cr-6Ni-3Mo-2Cu-0.2N),PREN值为38-39,这类钢的耐蚀性能高于22%Cr的双相不锈钢。

第四类属超级双相不锈钢型,含高钼和氮,标准牌号UNS S3275025Cr-7Ni-3.7Mo-0.3N,有的也含钨和铜,PREN值大于40,可适用于苛刻的介质条件,具有良好的耐蚀与力学综合性 能,可与超级奥氏体不锈钢相媲美。

不锈钢

不锈钢钢种很多,性能各异,它在发展过程中逐步形成了几大类。

按组织结构分,分为马氏不锈钢(包括沉淀硬化不锈钢)、铁素体不锈钢、奥氏体不锈钢和奥氏体加铁素体双相不锈钢等四大类;

按钢中的主要化学成分或钢中的一些特征元素来分类,分为铬不锈钢、铬镍不锈钢、铬镍钼不锈钢以及低碳不锈钢、高钼不锈钢、高纯不锈钢等;

按钢的性能特点和用途分类,分为耐硝酸不锈钢、耐硫酸不锈钢、耐点蚀不锈钢、耐应力腐蚀不锈钢、高强不锈钢等;

按钢的功能特点分类,分为低温不锈钢、无磁不锈钢、易切削不锈钢、超塑性不锈钢等。常用的分类方法是按钢的组织结构特点和钢的化学成分特点以及两者相结合的方法分类。一般分为马氏体不锈钢、铁素体不锈钢、奥氏体不锈钢、双相不锈钢和沉淀硬化型不锈钢等,或分为铬不锈钢和镍不锈钢两大类。

5西安双相不锈钢焊接特性

双相不锈钢具有良好的焊接性能,与铁素体不锈钢及奥氏体不锈钢相比,它既不像铁素体不锈钢的焊接热影响区,由于晶粒严重粗化而使塑韧性大幅降低,也不像奥氏体不锈钢那样,对焊接热裂纹比较敏感。

双相不锈钢由于其特殊的优点,广泛应用于石油化工设备、海水与废水处理设备、输油输气管线、造纸机械等工业领域,近些年来也被研究用于桥梁承重结构领域,具有很好的发展前景。

节约型双相钢"经常会出现的焊接性能问题。而焊接标准双相钢并不是一个问题,而且不论采用何种工艺,都有适合这些应用的焊材。从金相的角度来看,焊接21011.4162)根本就没有问题,实际上它甚至要比标准级的双相钢更加容易焊接,因为这种材料事实上可以采用乙炔焊工艺来进行焊接,而对于标准双相钢材料而言,始终必须避免使用这种工艺。焊接2101所面临的实际问题是熔池的粘度不同,因此可湿性差了一点。这迫使操作人员在焊接的过程中更加多地使用电弧焊,而这正是问题的所在。尽管可以通过选择超合金化焊材加以弥补,但是大家经常希翼选择匹配的焊材。

2101中,也存在低温热影响区和高温热影响区中的显微结构之间的热影响区相互作用,比230422052507更加有利。在以2101进行试验时,也已经发现由于镍含量较低,因此产生了含有较多氮与锰的不同类型的"回火色",而这影响了腐蚀性能。在电弧和熔池中发生的这一成分损失是由于氮与锰的蒸发与熔敷,这对于双相钢等级的材料来说是一个新问题,因此在这次讲课中将作了较多描述。

焊接特点

双相不锈钢其焊接特点如下:

双相不锈钢在正常固溶处理(1020℃~1100℃加热并水冷),钢中含有大约50%60%奥氏体和50%40%铁素体组织。随着加热温度的提高,两相比例变化并不明显。

双相不锈钢具有良好的低温冲击韧性,如20mm厚的板材横向试样在-80℃时冲击吸取功可达100J以上。在大多数介质中其耐均匀腐蚀性能和耐点腐蚀性能均较好,但要注意,该类钢在低于950℃热处理时,由于σ相的析出,其耐应力腐蚀性能将显著变坏。由于该钢Cr当量与Ni当量比值适当,在高温加热后仍保留有较大量的一次奥氏体组织,又可使二次奥氏体在冷却过程中生成,结果钢中奥氏体相总量不低于30%40%因而使钢具有良好的耐晶间腐蚀性能。

另外,如前所述,在焊接这种钢时裂纹倾向很低,不须预热和焊后热处理。由于母材中含有较高的N,焊接近缝区不会形成单相铁素体区,奥氏体含量一般不低于30%。适用的焊接方法有钨极氩弧焊和焊条电弧焊等,一般为了防止近缝区晶粒粗化,施焊时,应尽量使用低的线能量焊接。

影响因素

影响双相不锈钢焊接质量的因素主要体现在以下几方面:

N量影响

Gómez de Salazar JM等人研究了保护气体中 N2的不同含量对双相不锈钢性能的影响。结果表明,随着混合气体中 N2分压 PN2的增加,焊缝中氮的质量分数ω(N)开始迅速增加,然后变化很小,焊缝中的铁素体相含量φ(α)ω(N)增加呈线性下降,但φ(α)对抗拉强度和伸长率的影响与ω(N)的影响刚好相反。同样的铁素体相含量φ(α),母材的抗拉强度和伸长率均高于焊缝。这是由于显微组织的不同所造成的。双相不锈钢焊缝金属中含 N 量提高后可以改善接头的冲击韧性,这是由于增加了焊缝金属中的γ相含量,以及减少了Cr2N 的析出。

热输入影响

与焊缝区不同,焊接时热影响区的ω(N)是不会发生变化的,它就是母材的ω(N),所以此时影响组织和性能的主要因素是焊接时的热输入。根据文献 ,焊接时应选择合适的线能量。焊接时如果热输入太大,焊缝热影响区范围增大,金相组织也趋于晶粒粗大、紊乱,造成脆化,主要表现为焊接接头的塑性指标下降。如焊接热输入太小,造成淬硬组织并易产生裂纹,对HAZ的冲击韧性同样不利。此外,凡影响冷却速度的因素都会影响到 HAZ 的冲击韧性,如板厚、接头形式等。

σ相脆化

国外文献先容了再热引起的双相不锈钢及其焊缝金属的σ相脆化问题。母材和焊缝金属的再热过程中,先由α相形成细小的二次奥氏体γ*,然后析出σ相。结果表明,脆性开裂都发生于σ相以及基体与σ相的界面处,对母材断口观察表明,在σ相周围区域内都为韧窝,由于α相区宽,大量生成的σ相才会使韧性降低,然而在焊缝中α相区是细小的,断口仍表现为脆性断裂,只要少量的σ相生成就足以引起焊缝金属韧性的降低,因此,焊缝金属中的σ相脆化倾向比母材要大得多。

氢致裂纹

双相不锈钢焊接接头的氢脆通常发生于α相,且氢脆的敏感性随焊接时峰值温度的升高而增加。其微观组织的变化为:峰值温度增加,γ相含量减少,α相含量增加,同时由α相边界和内部析出的Cr2N 量增加,故极易发生氢脆。

应力腐蚀开裂

母材和焊缝金属中的裂纹都起始于α/γ界面的α相一侧,并在α相内扩展。奥氏体(γ)由于其固有的低氢脆敏感性,因此,可起到阻挡裂纹扩展的作用。由于DSS 中含有一定量的奥氏体,所以其应力腐蚀开裂倾向性较小。

点蚀问题

耐点蚀是双相不锈钢的一个重要特性,与其化学成分和微观组织有着密切关系。点蚀一般产生于α/γ界面,因此被认为是产生于γ相和α相之间的γ*相。这意味着γ*相中的含Cr量低于γ相。γ*相与γ相的成分不同,是由于γ* 相中 Cr Mo含量低于初始γ相中的CrMo含量。进一步研究表明,含N量较低的钢,其点蚀电位对冷却速度较为敏感。因此,在焊接含 N 量较低的双相不锈钢时,对冷却速度的控制要求更加严格。在双相不锈钢焊接过程中,合理控制焊接线能量是获得高质量双相不锈钢接头的关键。线能量过小,焊缝金属及热影响区的冷却速度过快,奥氏体来不及析出,从而使组织中的铁素体相含量增多;如线能量过大,尽管组织中能形成足量的奥氏体,但也会引起热影响区内的铁素体晶粒长大以及σ相等有害相的析出。一般情况下,焊条电弧焊(Shieded Metal Arc WeldingSMAW)、钨极氩弧焊(Gas Tungsten Arc WeldingGTAW)、药芯焊丝电弧焊(Flux-Cored WireArc WeldingFCAW)和等离子弧焊(Plasma Arc WeldingPAW)等焊接方法均可用于双相不锈钢的焊接,且在焊前一般不需要采取预热措施,焊后也不需进行热处理。

西安双相不锈钢工艺提升

1 合金元素和冷却速度

实验和理论计算表明:临界区加热后获得双相组织所需的临界冷却速率与钢中锰含量具有一定关系。其根钢中存在的合金元素,就可估算获得双相组织所需要的临界冷却速率,为热处理双相钢生产时,选择适当的冷却方法提供依据。

当钢的化学成分一定时,应在保证获得双相组织的前提下,尽可能采用较低的冷却速度,使铁素体中的碳有充分的时间扩散到奥氏体中,从而降低双相钢的屈服强度,提高双相钢的延性。如果钢中合金元素含量较4,临界冷却速度过高,冷却后铁素体中含有较高的固溶碳,不利于获得优良性能的双相钢,这时应改变钢的化学成分,增加钢中的合金元素含量,从而降低临界冷却速度,或者在双相钢的生产工艺中,加入补充回火工序,降低铁素体中的固溶碳,改善双相钢的性能。如果钢中含有强的碳化物形成元素,当估算临界冷却速率时,应考虑到这些元素对临界区加热时所形的奥氏体淬透性和有利影响,VTi的碳化物粒子可以通过相界面的钉扎作用提高奥氏体的淬透性,降低临界冷却速度.

2.两阶段冷却工艺

当钢中合金元素含量较低时,冷却速度较慢会得到铁素体加珠光体组织;冷却速度较快时,则铁素体中保留固溶碳较高,不利于降低屈服强度和提高延性。采用两阶段冷却可以改善双相钢的性能,即从临界区加热温度缓冷到某一温度,然后快冷。缓冷可以使铁素体中的碳向未转变的奥氏体富聚。而快冷则可以避免未转变的奥氏体等温分解,保证获得所需的双相组织和性能。例如0.08%C-1.4%Mn钢,从800;加热到水冷的力学性能为:σ0.2=365PMaσb=700MPaσ0.2/σb=0.52eu=18%et=21%。如采用两阶段冷却工艺,即在800;加热后,空冷到600;,然后水冷,其性能为:σ0.2=280MPaσb=600MPaσ0.2/σb=0.47eu=21%et=29%。两阶段冷却使双相钢的屈服强度降低,延性提高。

3.双相钢板热轧后盘卷温度的影响

对于一个给定成分的钢,临界区加热时奥氏体的淬透性可以通过钢板热轧后高温卷来修正。高温盘卷可使碳、锰等合金元素在**组(珠光体或贝氏体)中明显富集。有利提高随后临界区处理时双相钢的综合性能。以0.049%C-1.99%Mn-0.028%Al-0.0019%N钢的试验结果为例,采用两种工艺过程:一种为普通扎制工艺,终轧温度900;→油冷到600;盘卷吹风冷到室温冷轧70%→连续退火。两种盘卷工艺的碳和锰分布的分析结果可见高温盘卷可使碳和锰在**相中明显富集,而普通的轧制工艺锰基本无富集趋势。

用高温盘卷以修正合金含量较低的钢在随后临界区处理时的淬透性,并降低热处理双相钢的屈服强度,提高其延性的技术,已在有关工厂用于热处理双相钢的生产,所得到的热处理双相钢板综合性能良好,板材各部位的性能均匀,纵向、横向性能一致。例如对0.09%C-0.44Si-1.54%Mn-0.023%Al钢。

限制要求

1.需要对相比例进行控制,*合适的比例是铁素体相和奥氏体相约各占一半,其中某一相的数量*多不能超过65%,这样才能保证有*佳的综合性能。如果两相比例失调,例如铁素体相数量过多,很容易在焊接HAZ形成单相铁素体,在某些介质中对应力腐蚀破裂敏感。

2.需要掌握双相不锈钢的组织转变规律,熟悉每一个钢种的TTTCCT转变曲线,这是正确引导制定双相不锈钢热处理,热成型等工艺的关键,双相不锈钢脆性相的析出要比奥氏体不锈钢敏感的多。

3.双相不锈钢的连续使用温度范围为-50250℃,下限取决于钢的脆性转变温度,上限受到475℃脆性的限制,上限温度不能超过300℃。

4.双相不锈钢固溶处理后需要快冷,缓慢冷却会引起脆性相的析出,从而导致钢的韧性,特别是耐局部腐蚀性能的下降。

5.高铬钼双相不锈钢的热加工与热成型的下限温度不能低于950℃,超级双相不锈钢不能低于980℃低铬钼双相不锈钢不能低于900℃,避免因脆性相的析出在加工过程造成表面裂纹

6.不能使用奥氏体不锈钢常用的650-800℃的消除应力处理,一般采用固溶退火处理。对于在低合金钢的表面堆焊双相不锈钢后,需要进行600-650℃整体消应处理时,必须考虑到因脆性相的析出所带来的韧性和耐腐蚀性,尤其是耐局部腐蚀性能的下降问题,尽可能缩短在这一温度范围内的加热时间。低合金钢和双相不锈钢复合板的热处理问题也要同此考虑。

7.需要熟悉了解双相不锈钢的焊接规律,不能全部套用奥氏体不锈钢的焊接,双相不锈钢的设备能否安全使用与正确掌握钢的焊接工艺有很大关系,一些设备的失效往往与焊接有关。关键在于线能量和层间温度的控制,正确选择焊接材料也很重要。焊接接头(焊缝金属和焊接HAZ)的两相比例,尤其是焊接HAZ维持必要的奥氏体数量,这对保证焊接接头具有与母材同等的性能很重要。

8.在不同的腐蚀环境中选用双相不锈钢时,要注意钢的耐腐蚀性总是相对的,尽管双相不锈钢有较好的耐局部腐蚀性能,就某一个双相不锈钢而言,他也是有一个适用的介质条件范围,包括温度、压力、介质浓度、pH值等,需要慎重加以选择。从文献和手册中获取的数据很多是实验室的腐蚀试验结果,往往与工程的实际条件有差距,因此在选材时需要注意,必要时需要进行在实际介质中的腐蚀试验或是现场条件下的挂片试验,甚至模拟装置的试验。

6焊材选用要求

焊材要求

焊材包括:①填充金属;②保护气体和背面保护气体。分述如下。在焊态下使用的焊接结构,其焊缝金属与母材相比应是合金元素镍含量较高的。这是为了保证合适的铁素体和奥氏体的相比例。这一纯焊缝金属在焊态下,必须有这样的成分,即能在结晶后直接均匀地形成以奥氏体为主(30%70%)的并含有铁素体的双相组织。当焊件可在10501100℃温度下退火时,应该选择与母材成分(Ni=55%70%)相当的焊缝金属。在这种焊接工艺中,焊后占主要的铁素体基体转变形成了平衡的铁素体/奥氏体组织。焊接双相不锈钢和超级双相不锈钢的焊材均是配套设计的(详见表1和表2)。手工焊用的涂药焊条既可以用钛型药皮焊条,也可以用碱**皮焊条。碱**皮的焊条对全位置的焊接更适宜一些,而铁型悍条工艺性优良,在几乎所有的实际应用中都可获得满意的效果。

采用填充焊丝和其他焊接方法(GTAWGMAWSAW)熔敷的焊缝金属与焊丝有类似的化学成分。

保护气体适用于各种气体保护焊方法(见表3)。

1双相不锈钢的配套焊接材料

背面保护气体用于单面焊的焊管内部气体保护,即可以用于工业纯氩气,也可以用于高纯度氩气(99.99%)。在所有情况下,气体都应该干燥(PrEN439:CO2外,所有气体*大不超过40ppm露点*高-50℃,CO2中的水分*大不超过200ppm,露点*高为-35℃),因该采取各种措施避免水分侵入保护气体中。

保护气体和背面保护气体对焊缝金属的含氮量有影响。由于保护气体中的N2分压低,可能从焊缝熔池中扩散出N2,从而使焊缝金属氮量降低,*大可减少0.05%N2。存在这种危险时,在保护气体和背面保护气体中必须加入5%N2,以防止焊缝金属N2损失。

焊材选用

双相不锈钢用的焊材,其特点是焊缝组织为奥氏体占优的双相组织,主要耐蚀元素(铬、钼等)含量与母材相当,从而保证与母材相当的耐蚀性。为了保证焊缝中奥氏体的含量,通常是提高镍和氮的含量,也就是提高约2% ~ 4%的镍当量。在双相不锈钢母材中,一般都有一定量的氮含量,在焊材中也希翼有一定的含氮量,但一般不宜太高,否则会产生气孔。这样镍含量较高就成了焊材与母材的一个主要区别。  根据耐腐蚀性、接头韧性的要求不同来选择与母材化学成分相匹配的焊条,如焊接Cr22型双相不锈钢,可选用Cr22Ni9Mo3型焊条,如E2209焊条。采用酸性焊条时脱渣优良,焊缝成形美观,但冲击韧性较低,当要求焊缝金属具有较高的冲击韧性,并需进行全位置焊接时,应采用碱性焊条。当根部封底焊时,通常采用碱性焊条。当对焊缝金属的耐腐蚀性能具有特殊要求时,还应采用超级双相钢成分的碱性焊条。  对于实心气体保护焊焊丝,在保证焊缝金属具有良好耐腐蚀性与力学性能的同时,还应注意其焊接工艺性能,对于药芯焊丝,当要求焊缝成形美观时,可采用金红石型或钛钙型药芯焊丝,当要求较高的冲击韧度或在较大的拘束度条件下焊接时,宜采用碱度较高的药芯焊丝。  对于埋弧焊宜采用直径较小的焊丝,实现中小焊接规范下的多层多道焊,以防止焊接热影响区及焊缝金属的脆化,并采用配套的碱性焊剂。

7国家标准

西安双相不锈钢牌号

我国新标准GB/T 20878-2007《不锈钢和耐热钢牌号及化学成分》中加入了许多双相不锈钢牌号。如:14Cr18Ni11Si4AlTi 022Cr19Ni5Mo3Si2N12Cr21Ni5Ti。更多的牌号见标准。

另外:杰出的2205双相钢相当于我国的022Cr23Ni5Mo3N.

*后,一些网页甚至论文将双相不锈钢写作双向不锈钢是错误的。双相是指金相组织的有两种,而非方向的

西安双相不锈钢化学成分

钢号

C≤

Mn≤

Si≤

S≤

P≤

Cr≤

Ni

Mo

Cu≤

N

S32750SAF2507

00Cr25Ni7Mo4N

0.03

1.20

0.8

0.020

0.035

24.0/26.0

6.0/8.0

3.0/5.0

0.50

0.24/0.32

S31803(SAF2205)

00Cr22Ni5Mo3N

0.03

2.00

1.0

0.020

0.030

21.0/23.0

4.50/6.50

2.50/3.50

0.08/0.20

S31500(3RE60)

00Cr18Ni5Mo3Siz

0.03

1.2/2.00

1.4/2.00

0.030

0.030

18.0/19.0

4.25/5.25

2.50/3.00

0.05/0.10

机械性能

钢号

σb(Mpa)≥

σs(Mpa)≥

δ(%)≥

硬度

布氏(HB)

洛氏(HRC)

S32750SAF2507

00Cr25Ni7Mo4N

800

550

15

310

32

S3180.(SAF2507)

00Cr22Ni5Mo3N

620

450

25

290

30.5

S31500(3RE60)

00Cr18Ni5Mo3Siz

630

440

30

290

30.5

西安双相不锈钢由于具有奥氏体+铁素体双相组织,且两个相组织的含量基本相当,故兼有奥氏体不锈钢和铁素体不锈钢的特点。屈服强度可达400Mpa ~ 550MPa,是普通奥氏体不锈钢的2倍。与铁素体不锈钢相比,双相不锈钢的韧性高,脆性转变温度低,耐晶间腐蚀性能和焊接性能均显著提高;同时又保留了铁素体不锈钢的一些特点,如475℃脆性、热导率高、线膨胀系数小,具有超塑性及磁性等。与奥氏体不锈钢相比,双相不锈钢的强度高,特别是屈服强度显著提高,且耐孔蚀性、耐应力腐蚀、耐腐蚀疲劳等性能也有明显的改善。  双相不锈钢按其化学成分分类,可分为Cr18型、Cr23(不含Mo)型、Cr22型和Cr25型四类。对于Cr25型双相不锈钢又可分为普通型和超级双相不锈钢,其中应用较多的是Cr22型和Cr25型。我国采用的双相不锈钢以瑞典产居多,具体牌号有:3RE60(Cr18)SAF2304 (Cr23)SAF2205 (Cr22)SAF2507(Cr25)

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